Hindus now make up While the Muslim share in population has increased, their year growth rate has shown a sharp decline. In fact, the decadal growth rate of all communities has slowed down, suggesting a stabilising trend for fertility rates, the data showed. The religion-based data was ready to be released in January but the then UPA government chose not to make it public ahead of the general elections that year.
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Both countries have conducted censuses over the past year, and when they report their census results, figures such as the widely accepted world population total are at risk of changing.
India has released the results of its Census, conducted from Feb. The provisional population totals were released on March 31, less than a month after the census was conducted. Now it is 90 percent. The last time this happened was between the and censuses, when the population actually declined. One much-anticipated census figure has seen a lot of attention in the Indian press.
The sex ratio of the child population ages 0 to 6 rose from males per females in to in In China, there are about to male births per females. Normally, the ratio would be about because biologically there are about 5 percent more male births worldwide than female. In India as well as in China and some western Asian countries, the preference for sons has resulted in the abortion of female fetuses and poorer nutrition and health care for girls.
In addition, parents of daughters must still pay a dowry, despite the practice being illegal since Sex-selective abortion was criminalized in but serious enforcement of the law was rare until recently. The national figure masks a more skewed sex radio in several states. In Punjab and neighboring Haryana, the 0 to 6 sex ratio is a very high and males per females, respectively.
However, another official source, the Sample Registration System SRS , indicates that government campaigns against the abortion of females may be having some effect. In Punjab, the sex ratio at birth recorded in had declined to male births for every female births from in , the first period for which the statistic was reported. Improvements were also found in most other states. Things may be turning around.
Subnational population counts, such as those for states, are important in any census, but in India they take on special significance. Both figures are certain to rise despite decreasing birth rates in each state. The sharpest TFR declines over the past few decades have been in states that have been well administered and happen to be in the south. Kerala, with a progressive history including significant rights for women, has a very low TFR of 1.
Birth rates are slowly declining in those states but they nonetheless increased by more than 20 percent from to And those increases mask somewhat higher growth because a considerable numbers of workers and their families leave to find work in cities or other states. A TFR of about 2. The census found a continuing increase in literacy.
Overall, 74 percent of the population 7 years and older was listed as literate—82 percent for males and 65 percent for females. While the EAG states lag behind the non-EAG states, they also have shown notable improvement, from 57 percent of the population literate in to 69 percent in For females, literacy passed 50 percent for the first time in the Census at 58 percent, a 15 percent increase since However, literacy figures as reported in the census should be taken with caution.
Often, the person responding for the household may report a household member as literate if he or she has any schooling at all. In this case, literacy may be marginal at best; people can lose literacy through lack of use in daily life. The Census of India reaffirms familiar patterns of global demographic change.
As in much of the developing world, population growth in India has become heavily concentrated in the poorest areas with large populations. The Effect of Female Feticide as Measured in the Census One much-anticipated census figure has seen a lot of attention in the Indian press. State Populations and Literacy Subnational population counts, such as those for states, are important in any census, but in India they take on special significance.
References Provisional results of the census can be found at www. Readers are advised that the figures given in the census tables are often given in the Indian style of lakhs and crores and can be initially confusing. Thus, the population of the state of Maharashtra shown as 11,23,72, is not a misprint.
India reports sex ratios the inverse from most countries, females per males. Sex ratios here have been converted to the more usual global practice of males per females. The TFR is the average number of children a woman would bear in her lifetime if the birth rate of a given year were to remain constant. Download Download full report.
2011 Census Shows How 1.3 Billion People in India Live
The Registrar General of India has released statistics on the level of living in India from the Census and the results are quite revealing. Even more revealing are the changes since the Census. Regarding the first two issues in the headline, the percentage of houses with an indoor toilet is still less than half but there was an improvement see table below. But, if one sees the glass as half empty, should the percentage increase in toilets remain steady, the Census would be the first to show this figure to reach percent! Conditions in rural areas are much worse than urban areas given that 7 out of 10 households must resort to open places like fields, bush, river, stream, railway tracks, and so forth. And how about those mobile phones? More than half of households do have at least one, nearly half in rural areas and 76 percent in urban areas.
2011 Census of India
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. House listing phase began on 1 April and involved collection of information about all buildings. The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 and 28 February Census has been conducted in India since and marks the first time biometric information was collected. According to the provisional reports released on 31 March , the Indian population increased to 1.
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