ARTA PROGRAMARII CALCULATOARELOR PDF

Powered by Blogger. Computer Science History In English language. History of computer science The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the twentieth century, and hinted at in the centuries prior. The progression, from mechanical inventions and mathematical theories towards the modern concepts and machines, formed a major academic field and the basis of a massive worldwide industry. Early history Early computation Main articles: History of computing and Timeline of computing BC— The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, and it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa BCE.

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Knuth began the project, originally conceived as a single book, in The first three of what were then expected to be seven volumes were published in rapid succession in , , and The first installment of Volume 4 a paperback fascicle was published in The hardback volume 4A was published in Additional fascicle installments are planned for release approximately biannually.

Considered an expert at writing compilers , Knuth started to write a book about compiler design in , and soon realized that the scope of the book needed to be much larger. In June , Knuth finished the first draft of what was originally planned to be a single volume of twelve chapters. This meant the book would be approximately 2, pages in length. At this point, the plan was changed: the book would be published in seven volumes, each with just one or two chapters.

Due to the growth in the material, the plan for Volume 4 has since expanded to include Volumes 4A, 4B, 4C, and possibly more. In , Knuth prepared a second edition of Volume 2, requiring it to be typeset again, but the style of type used in the first edition called hot type was no longer available. In , he decided to spend a few months working up something more suitable.

Eight years later, he returned with TeX , which is currently used for all volumes. Another characteristic of the volumes is the variation in the difficulty of the exercises. The level of difficulty ranges from "warm-up" exercises to unsolved research problems, providing a challenge for any reader.

Knuth's dedication is also famous:. This series of books is affectionately dedicated to the Type computer once installed at Case Institute of Technology , with whom I have spent many pleasant evenings.

Some readers are put off by the use of assembly language , but Knuth considers this necessary because algorithms need to be in context in order for their speed and memory usage to be judged.

This does, however, limit the accessibility of the book for many readers, and limits its usefulness as a "cookbook" for practicing programmers, who may not be familiar with assembly, or who may have no particular desire to translate assembly language code into a high-level language.

A number of more accessible algorithms textbooks using high-level language examples exist and are popular for precisely these reasons. American Scientist has included this work among " or so Books that shaped a Century of Science", referring to the 20th century, [1] and within the computer science community it is regarded as the first and still the best comprehensive treatment of its subject.

Covers of the third edition of Volume 1 quote Bill Gates as saying, "If you think you're a really good programmer. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Contents [ show ]. Holberton, 84, Early Computer Programmer".

The New York Times. Retrieved Slater, Robert Portraits in Silicon. MIT Press. Shasha, Dennis; Cathy Lazere Categories :. Cancel Save.

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The Art of Computer Programming

Knuth began the project, originally conceived as a single book, in The first three of what were then expected to be seven volumes were published in rapid succession in , , and The first installment of Volume 4 a paperback fascicle was published in The hardback volume 4A was published in Additional fascicle installments are planned for release approximately biannually. Considered an expert at writing compilers , Knuth started to write a book about compiler design in , and soon realized that the scope of the book needed to be much larger. In June , Knuth finished the first draft of what was originally planned to be a single volume of twelve chapters.

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Algorithms , Addison Wesley, Babel, S. Behzad, G. Chartand, L. Berge, Graphs Nort-Holland, Amsterdam,

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Click here to sign up for The Art of Computer Programming Newsletter , which features updates on new editions and promotions. At the end of , these books were named among the best twelve physical-science monographs of the century by American Scientist , along with: Dirac on quantum mechanics, Einstein on relativity, Mandelbrot on fractals, Pauling on the chemical bond, Russell and Whitehead on foundations of mathematics, von Neumann and Morgenstern on game theory, Wiener on cybernetics, Woodward and Hoffmann on orbital symmetry, Feynman on quantum electrodynamics, Smith on the search for structure, and Einstein's collected papers. These volumes are now available also in portable electronic form, using PDF format prepared by the experts at Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Special care has been taken to make the search feature work well. Thousands of useful "clickable" cross-references are also provided — from exercises to their answers and back, from the index to the text, from the text to important tables and figures, etc. Warning: Unfortunately, however, non-PDF versions have also appeared, against my recommendations, and those versions are frankly quite awful. A great deal of expertise and care is necessary to do the job right.

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