CACYREUS MARSHALLI PDF

We often do not realize how it can be easy to cause irremediable damage to the nature and compromise irredeemably the balance of an ecosystem that the natural selection has built in millennia of evolution, with actions that may seem insignificant but reveal later on inexorably their harmful effects. The introduction of allochthonous species in an environment differing from that where they have originated, has invariably had disastrous effects. The area is easily occupied as the new species does not find in loco any natural enemy that knows it and hence the alien has a good game in prevailing and developping in extremely short time. It is obvious that not all the species may survive to this initial trauma, taking logically into account that tropical species will never be able to live in opposite climates or vice versa the boreal ones but when an acclimatization is possible, here it is that the problem gets apparent. We could list tens of alien species that have invaded other territories due to the man even if some of them are fruit of introductions rightly wanted by him, with the foolish goal of finding foreign enemies to fight local enemies but often this invasion is fruit of the human silliness and of his misbehavior. All compartments of nature have been interested without exclusion of blows and without any distinction and still now is present a deliberate underestimation of the problem.

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This species is a native of Southern Africa. It arrived in Europe in the early s and has since spread around the western Mediterranean where it can be easily found and is often common in towns and villages.

It is spreading eastwards too, although more slowly, with records from south Italy, Greece etc. It is occasional in northern Europe UK, Holland etc where it is likely to arrive by importation of the larval foodplant, decorative geraniums. The underside markings are quite unlike any other European butterfly - brown ground colour with white blotches and lines.

The strongly chequered fringes and a long tail on the hindwing are also distinctive. Spreading eastwards into Italy and Greece etc. It flies in warmer months.

In the northern limits of its European range, it hibernates indoors on decorative flowers that have been brought inside to be overwintered. This is commonly used as a decorative plant in villages and towns which is why the species is so often encountered in urban areas.

Rarely opens its wings when taking nectar, but will show its uppersides when basking in sunshine, usually on leaves or grasses. Cacyreus marshalli Geranium Bronze. Gran Canaria, Spain, April Fuerteventura, Spain, February Field notes and information This species is a native of Southern Africa. Malaga, Spain, July Gennargentu, Sardinia, Italy, July Rhodes, Greece, May Thessaloniki, Greece, July Cadiz, Spain, October N Tenerife, Spain, April Provence, France, August Venice, Italy, July Blending in nicely with the Philipino shells on sale in the markets of Venice.

Gibraltar, October

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Geranium bronze

One of these - marshalli , was accidentally introduced to Europe from South Africa in , and has since become a serious pest of Pelargonium and Geranium in Spain and France. Cacyreus lingeus is a very widespread and common species which occurs throughout Africa with the exception of desert areas. In Europe it is expected to expand its range northwards and eastwards during the next few years. In the UK it was first recorded in in Sussex, and there have been several more records since then. In South Africa this species inhabits woodland and grassland.

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This species is a native of Southern Africa. It arrived in Europe in the early s and has since spread around the western Mediterranean where it can be easily found and is often common in towns and villages. It is spreading eastwards too, although more slowly, with records from south Italy, Greece etc. It is occasional in northern Europe UK, Holland etc where it is likely to arrive by importation of the larval foodplant, decorative geraniums. The underside markings are quite unlike any other European butterfly - brown ground colour with white blotches and lines. The strongly chequered fringes and a long tail on the hindwing are also distinctive. Spreading eastwards into Italy and Greece etc.

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