CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES PDF

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The taxonomy of the Gastropoda as it was revised by Philippe Bouchet and Jean-Pierre Rocroi in is currently the most up-to-date overall system for classifying gastropod mollusks. Gastropods are a taxonomic class of animals which consists of snails and slugs of every kind, from land, from freshwater, and from saltwater.

Systems of classification such as this one are primarily of value to malacologists people who study mollusks and other biologists. Biological classification schemes are not merely a convenience, they are an attempt to show the actual phylogeny the evolutionary relatedness within a group of organisms. Thus a taxonomy such as this one can be seen as an attempt to elucidate part of the tree of life , a phylogenetic tree.

Hausdorf, W. This system supersedes the system of Ponder and Lindberg from Subsequent revisions by other authors have been made since the publication of this paper. This classification system is a hybrid of the pre-existing, more traditional Linnaean taxonomy along with some more recent far-reaching revisions which are based on molecular work and use clades as taxa , see cladistics.

In the past, the taxonomy of gastropods was largely based on the morphological characters of the taxa, such as shell characteristics and internal anatomy including the structure of the radula and details of the reproductive system. This has made the newer taxa and their hierarchy controversial, and the debate about these issues is not likely to end soon.

This proposed classification has tried to integrate these recent advances in understanding by using unranked clades for taxa below the traditional rank of class class Gastropoda but above the rank of superfamily replacing the ranks subclass, superorder, order, and suborder , while still using the traditional Linnaean approach for superfamilies and all taxa below the rank of superfamily i.

The clades have been given names which are similar to, or in some cases the same as, traditional Linnaean names for taxa. Whenever monophyly a single lineage has not yet been tested and confirmed, or where a traditional taxon of gastropods has now been discovered to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic contains more than one lineage , the term "group" or "informal group" has been used. In this taxonomy valid families are recognized. The superfamily names are standardized so that they all end in the suffix "-oidea"; there are no longer any that end "-acea".

The classification of families into subfamilies however is often not well resolved, and should be regarded as the best possible hypothesis. A full bibliographic reference is provided for each taxon, giving the name of the authority, the original publication, the date of that publication, the type genus for the taxon, its nomenclatural status, and its validity under the rules of the ICZN. Since the publication of this taxonomic system in , various changes have been published by other authors, see Changes in the taxonomy of gastropods since This information is displayed in the form of a cladogram an evolutionary tree of descent.

It is worth bearing in mind however that this taxonomy is provisional: many of the taxa are still only known as "groups" or "informal groups", and therefore are likely to turn out to be polyphyletic in other words, they are likely to contain more than one lineage, and if so, they will be split in the future.

Template:Gastropoda taxonomy. The diagram above was based on the following information. The list format used below makes clear which taxa are groups and informal groups rather than clades:.

In the following more detailed list, indentation is used only for the ranks of superfamily and family. The clade names are not indented, but their hierarchy is indicated by the size of the font used in their names.

A clearer sense of their actual hierarchy can be drawn from the list immediately above this one. Contains the Palaeozoic Neritomorpha of uncertain position and the clades Cyrtoneritimorpha and Cycloneritimorpha. Contains the Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position, the informal group Architaenioglossa and the clades Sorbeoconcha and Hypsogastropoda.

Contains the clades Littorinimorpha , Neogastropoda and the informal group Ptenoglossa. Contains the subclades Elasmognatha , Orthurethra and the informal group Sigmurethra.

Two other superfamilies are part of the clade Sigmurethra, but they are not in the limacoid clade:. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

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KRAFTWERK-KENNZEICHENSYSTEM KKS PDF

Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda as it was revised by Philippe Bouchet and Jean-Pierre Rocroi in is currently the most up-to-date overall system for classifying gastropod mollusks. Gastropods are a taxonomic class of animals which consists of snails and slugs of every kind, from land, from freshwater, and from saltwater. Systems of classification such as this one are primarily of value to malacologists people who study mollusks and other biologists. Biological classification schemes are not merely a convenience, they are an attempt to show the actual phylogeny the evolutionary relatedness within a group of organisms. Thus a taxonomy such as this one can be seen as an attempt to elucidate part of the tree of life , a phylogenetic tree.

ACEFALIA JULIO CORTAZAR PDF

Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families.

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