CROCODYLUS PALUSTRIS PDF

The range of the mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris encompasses most of India except for a small part of northern India. It stretches east to Burma specifically, the city of Tinsukia and west to Iran town of Iranshahr. This crocodile is found as far north as Kibar, India. Choudhury and da Silva, ; Da Silva and Lenin,

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The range of the mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris encompasses most of India except for a small part of northern India.

It stretches east to Burma specifically, the city of Tinsukia and west to Iran town of Iranshahr. This crocodile is found as far north as Kibar, India.

Choudhury and da Silva, ; Da Silva and Lenin, The mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris is most commonly found in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes, hill streams, and village ponds.

It can live in fresh water and coastal saltwater lagoons. It also can live in human-made reservoirs. Typical depths for this species is 5m. This crocodile does not migrate seasonally, inhabiting the same locale in wet seasons or dry seasons. This species makes burrows on land in a wide variety of habitats.

Chang, et al. The maximum length for this crocodile is meters, and maximum weight is kg. It has rough thick scales covering the whole body with a muddy brown coloring. It has the widest snout among all crocodile species. There seems to be no visible difference between the sexes, except that the female is smaller. A hatchling would measure 0. It is considered a juvenile when it reaches 1. Crocodile hatchlings are in clutches of eggs. They require a specific temperature and humidity for them to develop successfully.

Grigg and Kirshner reported the temperature needed for successful growth and survival has been recorded at an average However, for sex determination, Lang et al. At temperatures of However, Lang et al.

The hatchlings lay under little shelves underneath the entrance, in the nest where they are able to hide from other species. They are unable to defend themselves until they yearlings.

The female mugger crocodile is sexually mature when it is 1. Females takes about years to reach sexual maturity. It takes males years to reach sexual maturity. Not much has been reported for the mating habits of the mugger crocodile.

However, in other species in the same genus there are many ways that crocodiles perform rituals before mating. In Nile crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus the male must swim around the female before it can show its testis. Nile crocodiles slap their heads against each other to compete and earn the privilege to mate with the female. The crocodiles make humming sounds for courtship.

Females lift their snout to signal submission when approached by a male. This can also mean submission for courting. The mugger crocodiles make burrows for their nests. Either the female or the male can make the nest, but the female maintains it.

Grigg and Kirshner, Although reproduction in captivity is difficult the successful cases have been reported. In the wild females reach sexual maturity at lengths of 1. Mugger crocodiles lay eggs during the annual dry season. They have been known to lay around eggs per clutch. In captivity they are known to lay 2 clutches a year. However, this has not been observed in the wild. The average incubation period for the eggs is days. The crocodiles can become independent when they are yearlings and large enough to defend themselves.

The female mugger crocodile defends and attends to the nest. The female continuously adjusts the temperature of the nest for suitable conditions for hatchlings and herself. It is difficult to observe how the mugger crocodile takes care of the hatchlings due to inaccessibility of the nests.

The young stay near the nest until they are yearlings, but it's unclear how much care the female extends towards them. The male does not take care of the young. Carey and Judge report this species living Snider and Bowler have it recorded as it living as long as The crocodiles are poikilothermic reptiles and they need to alter their internal temperature by basking.

Mugger crocodiles dig burrows to help maintain and protect them from ambient temperature changes. Individuals of all ages dig burrows to do this. Members of this species are ferocious when threatened or when their nest is being preyed upon. Although assumed to be rather sedentary, it's been reported that this species takes "long-distance overland treks" in portions of its range. These treks have been reported in India, Sri Lanka, and Iran.

Home range has not been reported for the mugger crocodile. Females are known to defend burrows but an area has not been defined. Mugger crocodiles normally float on the surface of the water with just their nose or eyes protruding from the surface of the water. They rely on their eyes, nose, and ears when they are above the surface of the water. When they are submerged, they rely on their skin, feeling vibrations in the water.

Their skin is a unique sensory organ. It is similar to the lateral line network in fish but is unique to the crocodiles. They are so sensitive that they can detect the pH of the water. The mugger crocodiles are opportunistic carnivores.

They are capable of eating any animal smaller than them including other crocodiles. They eat even other eggs of species. As hatchlings, mugger crocodiles eat small insects and other small invertebrates, including crustaceans. However, as they grow, so does the average size of their prey items.

For a crocodile with a length greater than 2 meters they can eat g of food. However a crocodile smaller than 0. The mugger crocodile is the top predator in its ecosystem. The only danger of predation is during the hatchling stage. Crows and dingoes Canis lupus dingo have been reported as nest predators.

There has been human Homo sapiens predation of the eggs of the species, and human fishermen may occasionally kill an adult. Mugger crocodiles perform a role in maintaining the structure and function of fresh water ecosystems because they are a top predator and keystone species affecting all of the animals below them in the food chain.

The only recorded species of parasites that have inhabited the mugger crocodile are the tongueworms Subtriquetra megacephala and Subtriquetra shipleyi. Crocodylus palustris is killed for its skin to make leather products.

However people, Homo sapiens , still hunt for other reasons besides just their skin. Their bones and scales are fabled to have medicinal properties that the older generation still uses. Poachers also steal eggs of the species to sell on the black market. Da Silva and Lenin, ; Thorbjarnarson, Mugger crocodiles have been an economic liability in areas where fishing is a large part of the economy.

As top predators, these crocodiles may decrease fish biodiversity. Crocodiles have been known to attack fishermen. This species is not under the US list because it is not indigenous to the United States. Historically, the primary threats to mugger crocodiles have been habitat destruction, fragmentation, drowning in fishing nets, egg predation by people, and the use of crocodile parts for medicinal purposes. Currently, the main risks to the species are changes to habitat and mortality in fishing nets.

Many breeding facilities that are used to increase the population have been shut down and are used to hold the surplus eggs in stock. This is because there have been observations of the crocodile population increasing. There has been an increase in crocodile sightings and attacks which has led to this reasoning. Many laws have been placed by India, Pakistan, Iran, and Sri Lanka to outlaw the hunting and harming of mugger crocodiles. Mugger crocodiles have received the highest legal protection in Pakistan as it is listed in Schedule I of the Pakistan Wildlife Protection Act Those who have been found guilty have been punished by loss or suspension of their hunting license for all animals.

Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

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Crocodylus palustris, a crocodile species that is being removed from the Narmada

The mugger crocodile, also called marsh crocodile or broad-snouted crocodile, is a species Crocodylus palustris native to freshwater habitats from southern Iran and Pakistan to the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka. It has come to the centre of renewed attention in Gujarat, where the Forest Department has started evacuating muggers from two ponds on the Sardar Sarovar Dam premises on the Narmada, to facilitate a seaplane service at the Statue of Unity. Among the six schedules in the Act, Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide the highest degrees of protection to listed species, with the most stringent penalties for offenders. For animals listed in Schedule I, any of kind of population control activity, capture for captivity, or transportation can involve cumbersome processes. It is a tedious process that involves a chain of paperwork, and permissions. This includes even transportation of crocodiles.

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Mugger crocodile

Go to: main text of page main navigation local menu. Holotype: BMNH However, this is incorrect. Note: Lesson is sometimes cited as because this work was published in sections until The Mugger, Crocodylus palustris, monster of the waters. Amphibians and reptiles of Parsa National Park, Nepal.

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The mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris , also called "marsh crocodile", "broad-snouted crocodile" and mugger , is a crocodilian native to freshwater habitats from southern Iran to the Indian subcontinent. It is a medium-sized crocodile that inhabits lakes , rivers , marshes and artificial ponds. Females dig holes in the sand as nesting sites and lay up to 46 eggs during the dry season. Young feed on insects. It is one of three crocodilians in India, apart from saltwater crocodile C.

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