SAE J431 PDF

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DEC SAE J Automoti SAE J Scope—This SAE Standard covers the hardness, tensile strength, and microstructure and special requirements of gray iron sand molded castings used in the automotive and allied industries. Specific requirements are provided for hardness of castings. Provision is made for specification of special additional requirements of gray iron automotive castings where needed for particular applications and service conditions. In the document was revised to make SI metric units primary.

The number of hardness grades was increased relative to the number of previously available ranges to facilitate centering of casting mean hardness in the specification range so that dependence of cost optimization on controlling near the low or high sides of specification ranges is minimized. Unless otherwise indicated, the latest issue of SAE publications shall apply. The use of this report is entirely voluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.

SAE invites your written comments and suggestions. All rights reserved. Printed in U. Additional information concerning gray iron castings, their properties, and use can be obtained from: 1. Odeh and D. Owen, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Tucker and D. The units used for this purpose are MPa for both tensile strength and hardness. The casting hardness unit used for this purpose is the MPa. Grades of this document can have multiple equivalents with grades of previous SAE and most other standards as exemplified by grades G and G Determination of current grade equivalent for castings established in production under previous SAE or other documents, shall be by the producer, in accordance with 5.

When the producer does not have access to the applicable historical data, grade determination shall be based on samples provided by producer and approved by purchaser.

Statistically defined 2. Both tensile and hardness in MPA units 3. For reference only. See Section 1. Units of HB are kgf per mm2. Statistically Defined. Total Carbon 3. Microstructure: Lamellar Pearlite. Chromium shall be 0. Molybdenum shall be 0. Microstructure of cam nose: Extending to 45 degrees on both sides of cam nose centerline and to minimum depth of 3. The amount of carbide in the cams and method of checking shall be specified by the purchaser.

Casting Hardness check location shall be on a bearing surface. As-cast requirements. Camshafts may be flame or induction hardened to specified hardness and depth on cam surfaces. Ranges for specific castings shall be within the ranges shown. A partial list of casting grades in common production and use, identified as reference grades and considered standard, is given in Table 4 with current and previous SAE designations.

Other combinations of iron grade and hardness grade which are established in production and use or become so in the course of application development, or in accordance with 3. Established in production and use and having near equivalents with previous SAE designations. Equivalency based on tensile strength in 30 mm diameter test bars. See Table A4. NOTE—For castings successfully established in production and use under previous designations, the current SAE casting grade shall be determined by the producer and approved by the purchaser see 3.

The 10 mm ball and kgf load shall be used unless physically precluded by specimen dimensions as given in ASTM E When a hardness test other than the Brinell test with 10 mm ball and kgf load must be used, conversion to the kgf 10 mm ball equivalent shall be by applicable conversion table in SAE J or by on-site calibration using Standard Brinell Bars.

It should be readily accessible for convenience in performing the test to ensure adequate quantity, consistency, and accuracy of accumulated data for statistical validity in service of general variance control. Targeting of hardness measurement at service function related locations shall not be considered a requirement unless specified in accordance with 5.

In special cases, casting hardness at particular casting locations considered critical by the designer but difficult to access or requiring casting destruction may be specified by the purchaser with producer agreement.

In such cases, hardness grade conformance may be established directly by hardness readings so obtained or indirectly by hardness readings at an accessible location using an agreed method of correlation. For sample sizes less than 30, the lower limit shall be taken as 3 standard deviations below the mean. Frequency of sampling may be specified by purchaser or determined by producer.

Minimum frequency per grade shall be 1 per 8 h shift. Casting samples to confirm casting hardness conformance shall be random samples. Casting hardness range may be specified by the purchaser to provide a non-statistical upper limit for machinability control. The standard range shall be MPa or 60 HB, taken above the required grade minimum, and this shall be the assumed range when not specified.

Purchasers shall not specify narrower ranges than this without prior agreement of the producer. Producers shall not exceed this range without prior agreement of the purchaser. The agreed minimum shall be obtained with a standard grade as defined in this document.

Information for estimating and experimentally determining the tensile minimum which can be expected for a given grade at specific locations in castings for purposes of design and development is given in Section A.

Heat Treatment Castings of hardness grades H10 through H17 may be annealed to meet hardness requirements. Castings of grades H21 through H24 may be quenched and tempered to meet hardness requirements. Appropriate heat treatment for removal of residual stresses, or to improve machinability or wear resistance, may be specified. Heat treated castings must meet hardness requirements of the grade.

Alloy Iron Automotive Camshafts These castings are considered as special cases and are covered in Table 3 and 4. General Requirements Castings furnished to this document shall be representative of good foundry practice and shall conform to dimensions and tolerances specified on the casting drawing.

Approval by purchaser of location on the casting and method to be used is required for any casting repair. Additional casting requirements such as vendor identification, other casting information, and special testing may be agreed upon by purchaser and supplier.

These should appear as product specifications on the casting or part drawing. Notes An R symbol to the left of the document title indicates a complete revision of the report.

Because its graphite has this flake structure, gray iron exhibits much greater sensitivity of mechanical properties to carbon content than malleable or ductile. As in malleable and ductile, the metallic matrix in which the graphite of gray iron resides is normally either eutectoid or hypo-eutectoid silicon steel with a working range of hardness of about to HB 1.

In special cases, the matrix may be martensitic or hyper-eutectoidal with working hardness up to about HB 8 GPa A. Since these lines are also lines of constant eutectic graphite and CE, the most important castability parameters, they are logical grade lines for foundry control as well as for mechanical property control.

Limited effectiveness of control by a single bulk property is illustrated in Figures A2 and A3. Figure A2 exemplifies grading by tensile strength alone—any given grade so defined is seen to traverse a wide range of possible hardness minimums. Likewise, in Figure A3, hardness is used as a single defining property and a wide range of possibilities exists for the tensile minimum.

Figure A4 illustrates improved control obtainable by jointly specifying two property parameters. A tensile minimum is now defined and, in general, all properties including castability are effectively controlled.

For a number of purposes, it is useful to know the matrix hardness. Examples of its use are -- process control of the hardness property, simplification of bivariate statistical analysis of hardness and tensile strength, and engineering selection of iron grade for best wear resistance or fatigue life in strain limited loading.

A1 in which k is a graphite structure related constant with a usual range in sand cast gray iron of 0. This method predicts population limits of parent production in standard deviation units, at various confidence levels, as multiples of the sample standard deviation measured from the sample mean.

Tabulations of such multipliers versus sample size are widely published one of many possible references is given in 2. The curve of Figure A5 is a plot of such a tabulation showing how the multiplier typically varies with sample size. For a sample size of about bars, the —2. The quantity of flake graphite and size of the flakes vary with iron grade.

The amount and fineness of pearlite vary with the hardness grade. The pearlite is usually lamellar but may be partially spheroidal in slowly cooled sections or where heat treatment has been applied. In cam nose. As cast. Since some elements operate as coarsening and others as refining agents, combinations can be used for a neutral effect. Heat treatment is required to decompose all pearlite and produce a fully ferritic structure.

Both the amount and hardness of pearlite can be altered by heat treatment. The as-cast matrix structure in these cases is pearlite; in the contact surfaces, the matrix is transformed to tempered martensite by surface heat treatment.

Casting hardness is specified as a direct measure on the casting and controlled in common foundry practice by ladle alloy additions as needed to offset section size effects. Both test bar tensile strength and Casting Strength Index values can be used to determine tensile equivalency with iron graded by other specifications and to optimize SAE grade choice.

Established in production and use and having near equivalents in previous SAE standards and test bar tensile strength equivalents in other standards.

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SAE J431 G3500

DEC SAE J Automoti SAE J Scope—This SAE Standard covers the hardness, tensile strength, and microstructure and special requirements of gray iron sand molded castings used in the automotive and allied industries. Specific requirements are provided for hardness of castings. Provision is made for specification of special additional requirements of gray iron automotive castings where needed for particular applications and service conditions. In the document was revised to make SI metric units primary.

EL UNICO Y SU PROPIEDAD STIRNER PDF

Rotors are one of the important components of braking system which are usually made of gravy iron due to its superior damping vibration absorption and heat handling character. The combination of chemical combustion, physical properties and inferior microstructure for rotors identifies how quality and eligible product it is for the braking application. Physical properties. According to SAE J G standard, the automotive brake rotor and drum include specification as mentioned below:. Chemical composition G grey iron:. Carbon 5.

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